Obtaining and Collecting On a Judgment
By Michael Geo. F. Davis, Attorney at Law


Owners often feel that they can sue and immediately collect the money owed by a former resident, who in this article we will refer to as the "debtor". Unfortunately, this is often legally impossible, or if legally possible, so difficult as to be completely unrealistic. Florida has a reputation as a "debtor" state. This reputation is based mostly on Florida's generous "homestead exemption", which often fully exempts a person's home and real estate that are his residence from collection efforts. However, even for those debtors that don't own a home, there are numerous other protections.

The initial question is how much time and effort is the owner willing to expend to pursue someone who may currently have nothing to satisfy a judgment. The debtor may be what is often called "judgment proof", which means that although the debtor may have property, it may not be reachable to satisfy a judgment. The debtor may someday need to satisfy the judgment, particularly if he wishes to buy a home, but how much time and money will the owner expend now for a mere future possibility?

Locating and serving the debtor

Before we get to the protections afforded debtors in Florida, we should discuss some practical obstacles to suing a former resident. The first hurdle that an owner faces is locating the debtor, and this can be a big hurdle with some former residents, who will seemingly disappear. If the debtor is located, the next hurdle is serving the debtor. An owner cannot obtain a money judgment against a debtor unless he has obtained "personal service" on that debtor. This means that the debtor has to be served with the lawsuit paperwork ("the summons and complaint") personally. This is unlike an eviction action. Owners may recall that in an eviction action, the summons and complaint can be posted on the resident's door if he wasn't home. This type of notice to the resident is only valid to regain possession of the rental. It cannot be used to obtain a money judgment.

After the owner files the lawsuit, usually in the county where the rental was located, the sheriff must serve the debtor with the summons/complaint. If the debtor has moved to another county, the summons and complaint is forwarded to that county's sheriff. If the debtor has moved to another state, the summons and complaint must be forwarded to that jurisdiction for personal service. While the sheriffs in Florida and other states will do their jobs, they will not make extraordinary efforts to personally serve the debtor. The owner may have to hire a private process server, which will be an additional expense.

Risk of a counterclaim

Once the debtor is properly served, an owner with a valid claim may find that the debtor files a counterclaim. The counterclaim may be valid, but all too often it is jumble of anything that the debtor can dream up. Former residents/debtors, who never criticized maintenance, complained about repairs, or brought an issue to the owner's attention, now file a counterclaim for shoddy maintenance, damaged personal property, lack of repairs and issues like mold, roaches, rats and anything else that comes to their minds. The debtor will bring his family and friends to testify for him. The owner must now assemble his records and request maintenance and repair personnel accompany him to court to testify. There is always a risk that the owner will not have adequate records or that repair personnel will not be available to testify. If the debtor has an attorney, the owner's financial risk multiplies, since the prevailing party will be entitled to court costs and attorney's fees.

Locating the assets

If the debtor can be located and served, and a counterclaim is avoided or overcome, obtaining the judgment is only half the battle. The next hurdle is locating any assets. Florida law has procedures to assist in locating assets. The debtor can be required to list his assets or can be examined to locate assets. However, the process can be a time consuming exercise in futility, as the owner seeks to drag the information out of an uncooperative and perhaps deceptive debtor.

Collection costs

Finally, the owner locates assets and wants to collect on the judgment. A point to consider is that legal actions to aid in collection, such as levy, execution or garnishment, come with their own set of filing fees to be paid by the owner.


Even after locating the assets, filing the appropriate collection action and paying the filing fees, the owner may not be able to obtain the assets because they are exempt. Federal and Florida law establish what are known as "exemptions" to protect certain property of debtors from creditors, such as the previously referenced homestead exemption.

There are a host of federal or Florida exemptions for particular items of income that flow from government programs, some as obscure as the benefits for surviving spouses of lighthouse personnel. Some of the more common federal and Florida government programs which are exempt include: unemployment compensation, social security, public assistance, veterans and disability income benefits, retirement benefits, and medical savings, college and funeral accounts. Additionally, some large industries have prevailed upon the legislature to exempt their products, such as life insurance proceeds and the cash surrender value of life insurance and annuities. The Florida legislature has exempted alimony, child support and separate maintenance payments, $1,000 equity in a motor vehicle at used car prices, and property held jointly in the name of husband and wife, when only one spouse is the debtor. Finally, Florida exempts $1,000 of a debtor's personal property, including cash or bank accounts. A thousand dollars can cover a lot of property when it is valued as used property. Note that these exemptions are per person. So $2,000 total could be claimed by two former residents/debtors still living together.

If the debtor is employed, than Florida law provides a process called "garnishment" by which his wages may be taken. However, exemptions apply here too. The wages of a head of a family are completely exempt. "Head of a family" is much broader than a working parent. Any person providing more than half the support for a child or other dependent qualifies as the head of a family. If the debtor isn't the head of a family, only a percentage of his after tax wages can still be taken ("garnished").

The debtor's business

If the debtor is operating a business other than a sole proprietorship, a judgment against the debtor may not lead to successful collection against the business. If the debtor has followed the proper procedures, such entities as corporations, partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability companies and others, are considered separate and distinct entities from the debtor. A judgment against the debtor is not usually collectible against the debtor's separate business entity. Legal ownership may even have been placed in a relative or friend's name, although the debtor may be running the business.


Of course, the last resort of a debtor is declaring bankruptcy. A bankruptcy filing and discharge will prevent collection of the debt, so even the future possibility of collecting on a judgment is lost.

Collection abuse laws

A final word is that the owner should be aware that there are laws that address certain abuses in debt collection. While these laws mainly deal with professional debt collectors, it is worth noting that Florida's Consumer Collection Practices Act has provisions that are applicable to anyone attempting to collect a debt. The penalties and potential attorney's fee liability for violating this statute can quickly match or exceed the amount being sought.

Suing and collecting on a judgment are not for the faint of heart, those unwilling to traverse the red tape, or anyone seeking a quick resolution. The practical obstacles of locating and serving the debtor are often enough to justify turning the account over to a reputable collection agency. While a persistent owner may eventually reach the promised land of a recovery on a debt, it may be best left to established collection agencies or attorneys specializing in this area. Note that an added advantage of a collection agency is that, unlike a private owner, a qualified collection agency is able to report the debt to credit reporting agencies, like Experian, TransUnion or Equifax. However, collection agencies and collection attorneys will often retain a significant percentage of any monies collected as part of their agreements with owners, in addition to flat fees often charged for collection efforts, even if no money is collected.

For further information on filing suit and collection, see our other articles, " Suing A Tenant for Money Owed", " The Stack of Bills and Small Claims Court", "Small Claims Stategies - Settlement", "Florida Consumer Collection Laws and the Tenant Debt Dispute".


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Excluding Items In The Single Family Home
by Harry A. Heist, Attorney at Law


One of the most frustrating aspects of property management is to take over a property for management, diligently attend to the necessary repairs and replacements before or during the tenancy, only to be fired by the owner at the end of the year because too much money was spent. The repairs and replacements can get expensive and occur often, especially in older homes. Many owners are already in serious financial trouble, and these expenses create an added burden to them, and add fuel to the "angry owner syndrome" which we have seen in recent years due to the tough economic times. By the end of the year, the owner is tired of paying for repairs and replacements, sometimes feeling that they were unnecessary, or she wrongly thinks the property manager is somehow secretly making money from the situation. We all know that the property manager dreads having to inform the owner of necessary or completed repairs or replacements, and the owner dreads the expense.

The owner's obligations

The property owner is required to comply with Florida law, and Florida Statute 83.51 lays out legal obligations in regard to maintenance. These obligations include compliance with all applicable building, health and safety codes. Now, what about the "other" things that may need to be repaired or replaced, things like the dishwasher, washer, dryer, bathroom exhaust fans, Jacuzzi tub, hot tub, attached gas grill, ceiling fans, pool heater, built in sound system, garbage disposal, refrigerator, irrigation system, extra refrigerator in the garage, garage door opener remotes, range hood, garbage compactor, or any other amenity or appliance that you could possibly think of? The Florida Landlord Tenant Act makes no specific reference to most of these items, but are these obligations of the owner to repair or replace? In the absence of one or more lease contract provisions to the contrary, the answer is most likely yes.

The Lease Contract

In addition to the obligations of the owner as provided in Florida law, the lease can create additional obligations, and generally speaking, if the lease does not specifically exclude an item or items in the home that are present when the resident takes possession, the repair or replacement of these items will be the owner's obligation, regardless of cost. A judge in court does not care that the stove or any other item cannot be repaired and must be replaced because a part is not available anymore. A resident expects that all items he initially observed on the premises will be in working order and will be maintained by the owner as part of the rental, and this expectation often holds up in court. The problem lies in the conflict between the owner's expectations and the resident's expectations, and this is when the wise property manager has to step up to the plate and take action before a problem arises.

The Initial Review by the Property Manager

If you have not done so already, create a checklist of every item that you can possibly think does or could break down in a typical rental unit, then add space on your sheet for more you will think up later, or more you may observe when doing the review of the property you are managing or possibly will manage. When reviewing the property, try to look carefully at all the items, and if you have a handyman or maintenance person who can assist you, this is even better. Sometimes it is easy to see just by a quick observation that a washer or dryer is ancient; other times, testing may need to occur. Shortcuts taken at the review stage of the property will come back to haunt the property manager later when a repair or replacement is necessary.

Items not normally excluded

While possible, certain items are not normally excluded from the owner's responsibility, and we do not advise that you attempt to exclude such items. The central air conditioning and heating systems, water heater, pool pump, plumbing and electrical items are generally not items that you would want to exclude from the owner's responsibility. Rarely if ever are these items excluded, and if they are, you can run into difficulties and liability if the resident attempts a repair or hires an unlicensed individual to make a repair that requires a permit or a license. These also are items that could result in a lien being placed on the premises if the resident hires a contractor who does not get paid; the contractor might also file a lawsuit against the owner who was not even aware of the repair.

What can be excluded

The most obvious excludable items are those which are not real necessities of life in the dwelling. These are items which if they were to fail would not materially interfere with the use of the property as a dwelling unit. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the resident agreeing in the lease that certain appliances will not be guaranteed, repaired or replaced by the resident. Instead of the owner taking the gamble that the items will continue to work properly throughout the tenancy, the resident takes that gamble. Why would the resident take the gamble? If the owner tells the resident that this is why the rent is less than what it could be if the owner were responsible for maintaining all the appliances, the resident will often decide to take on the risk of having to pay himself for the repair or replacement, or possibly forgo making the repair or replacement. A resident whose clothes dryer breaks may just decide to hang dry the clothes rather than make a repair or replacement. An ice maker failure may be something that a resident simply will choose to ignore. Often with a prospective resident, it is the same psychological effect of "handyman specials" selling for a higher amount than they should, and the exclusions will not kill the deal.

Washer and Dryer- Many residents will agree to rent the home when the washer and/or the dryer are not the owner's responsibility. If the item fails, the resident can decide whether to replace, repair or go without.

Garbage Disposal- People have lived for years without garbage disposals, and they certainly are not a necessity of life. They will eventually break, sometimes due to age, defect or some foreign object that the resident puts in the disposal (but will adamantly deny once the disposal breaks, with the foreign object conveniently disappearing). Many landlords are now choosing to not have the responsibility of fixing the garbage disposal, but agreeing with the resident in the lease that in the event of a garbage disposal failure, the landlord can remove the disposal and replace it with a straight pipe. A failed garbage disposal will eventually cause a plumbing backup issue in the sink and can create an unsanitary condition which could contribute to an insect infestation among other problems. We recommend that the lease take the route of allowing the homeowner to remove the broken garbage disposal and replace with piping to avoid the resident potentially trying to make the repair or hiring a plumber.

Ice Makers-Besides being a major cause of flood damage when the water supply line breaks, a refrigerator ice maker is not a necessity of life and does eventually fail as the refrigerator ages. When it breaks, the expense is often prohibitive and could result in the landlord having to replace the entire refrigerator. This item can and should be excluded. Remember ice cube trays? We do not recommend that a resident attempt to repair such an item; rather, the safer route is for the landlord to have the water line disconnected or capped off, and the right to do this is addressed in the lease.

Ceiling Fans-With time, a ceiling fan will fail or become annoyingly noisy or wobbly. These can be excluded, but you may want to consider the possibility that a resident will be injured when attempting to fix the ceiling fan or installing a replacement improperly, increasing the risk or injury to themselves or others. In the event of failure, the resident can be given the option of having the landlord remove the fan altogether and replacing it with a light fixture.

Jet type tubs or hot tubs-Jet water type tubs or hot tubs, commonly referred to as Jacuzzis or Jacuzzi tubs, are not extremely expensive to purchase. The expense is usually in the tile work that surrounds the tub, which will invariably have to be removed and replaced in the event of a repair. The plumbing and tiling costs can easily exceed the cost of the repair to the tub itself. A Jacuzzi type tub can be used without turning the tub on and using the jets; therefore, it can be excluded.

Window/Wall Air Conditioners- Contrary to popular belief, the obligation to provide air conditioning is not specifically referenced under the Florida Landlord Tenant act (although standard buildings codes do address central air conditioning), but if that wall or window unit is there when the resident rents the unit, it better keep working! Sometimes the replacement or repair can be cost prohibitive, and these can be excluded.

All other appliances-The stove, dishwasher, microwave, refrigerator and just about any other appliance can be excluded in the lease, and the owner will not be required to repair or replace any of them in the event they fail. A landlord or property manager needs to examine these items and make the decision if they are going to be the landlord's responsibility or left up to the resident. It should be noted that the landlord's purposeful acts leading to an interruption or termination of refrigeration or elevator service is considered a prohibited practice.

Explaining the situation to the owner

Once you have done your property review, it is essential that you explain to the owner his legal obligations, then move into the contractual obligations and the expectations of the resident. You want the owner to be perfectly clear that any items not excluded will be the owner's responsibility and could result in an expensive repair or replacement. Depending upon your experiences with items in the unit, your gut feeling regarding the condition of these items or the recommendation of your maintenance person, you will make a recommendation to the owner, and then get something in writing from the owner instructing you to exclude the item or items.

Explaining the Excluded Items to the Resident

When showing the property to a prospective resident, the property manager should have with her the information showing exactly what will be excluded from the tenancy. We recommend that on the Property Information Sheet, these excluded items are listed out, so as you are walking the property with the prospective resident, she is also holding the information in her hands. The last things you would want is for the resident to claim that you failed to tell her about an excluded item and "slipped" it into the lease agreement.

The Lease Agreement

Once the owner has informed you in writing as to what if any items will be excluded from the tenancy, it is crucial that the lease clearly reflects the excluded items, so there is absolutely no misunderstanding whatsoever on the part of the resident. Remember that the resident's expectation will first and foremost be that the owner is responsible for maintaining everything. Now, since the lease will state otherwise, the excluded items must be made clear to the resident and specifically pointed out, not just at lease signing, but also at the property showing. Dropping the bomb on the resident at lease signing that the washer and dryer will not be repaired or replaced could result in the resident legitimately backing out of the lease and receiving all deposits back. Judges do not look kindly upon a "failure to disclose" to a consumer.

Should the Resident be Required to Repair?

We are not big proponents of making the resident obligated to repair or replace most items that fail or be required to pay for the repair. If the failure of an item is not the resident's fault, obligating the resident to repair or replace could be a problem. Allowing a resident to contract out for repairs to be done on the property, or allowing a resident to conduct the repair effort himself, can often lead to disastrous results. We have seen situations when residents have attempted repairs and were injured in the process, badly botched the repair, or hired incompetent or unscrupulous outside vendors to make a repair, leading to the owner receiving a shoddy repair effort and/or a large bill, resulting in a battle with the vendor as to who is responsible for paying the bill. Certain items are easily replaced if they fail or can be left alone if they fail. These are what we should be focusing on.

Are Exclusions Always Appropriate?

Typically in high end or new properties, excluding items will not be a common occurrence. Generally, the older the home and the items in the home, the higher the probability there will be items to exclude. When making the decision with the owner to exclude, it is crucial to ask yourself whether the item is "necessary" for the use of the dwelling. If the answer is yes, try to avoid excluding it. Not sure if something is "necessary"? Call your attorney.

The Washing Machine disappeared!

You and the owner must be prepared for the disappearance of an item that is excluded from the tenancy. That washing machine that the resident purchased when the owner's one failed and is now only 6 months' old will most likely leave with the resident, whether or not you put a clause in the lease stating that replaced items must stay. It is just human nature for the resident to not want to unjustly enrich an owner with a brand new appliance bought and paid for by the resident, and it is human nature for the owner to go ballistic when he hears that the washer and dryer is gone. You may want to discuss with the resident and preferably have defined on your Resident Instruction Form that when the resident vacates, the owner may want, but is not required to purchase a replaced item at a mutually agreed upon price to avoid you or the owner having to go out and purchase one again for a new resident. When deciding to exclude items, always keep in mind the possibility and high probability of the resident taking the replacement item with her upon vacating. It happens all the time.

Wording the Lease Agreement

When excluding items, the lease agreement needs to be carefully worded. There is a big difference in the resident being responsible for the repair or replacement of a certain item and the owner simply excluding it from his obligation to repair or replace. The latter is preferable. Further, excluding an item does not give the resident a green light to damage the item. Your attorney can help you properly word the lease agreement to avoid any misunderstandings.

Inspections by the Manager

On the whole, property managers do not inspect the rental units often enough. By increasing the frequency of inspections, the manager can determine visually or by speaking with the resident if any items have been repaired or replaced. Waiting until the end of the lease to try to figure out what happened after the resident is long gone only exacerbates the problem and increases your risk of having to argue with owners, who on the whole think that their rental home purchased in Florida 15 years ago looks the same as the day they bought it.


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Understanding Renters Insurance
by Brian P. Wolk Attorney at Law

If you are unsure as to exactly what renters insurance is, then you are not alone. Renters insurance is a topic that perplexes both residents and property managers, because there is not an adequate one or two sentence description that will do justice to this topic. There are many nuances involved, and a capable property manager should be aware of them. The good news is that you do not have to be an expert in the field of insurance to gain a basic understanding of renters insurance. However, what you do need to do is set aside some time to learn about it. Our hope is that this article will assist you in that process. Some studies suggest that the number of renters have increased by over ten percent since 2005. Yet, those same studies suggest only 43 percent of renters have renters insurance, while 96 percent of those who own homes have homeowners insurance. Why is there such a gap? Your residents have personal property just like homeowners. Do they not want to protect their personal belongings? Do not get the wrong impression, though; renters insurance has the capacity to protect the residents from much more than just personal property loss.

How does renters insurance protect the resident from personal property loss?

Mary lives in an apartment home located in Orlando. One night after returning home from work, she saw that her front window was busted. Sure enough, her apartment home was burglarized, and all of her valuable possessions, including her jewelry, were stolen. Edward lives an apartment home in Jacksonville, and a huge storm swept through the area. Edward's unit was damaged due to flooding related to the storm, and among the items damaged were his valuable baseball card collection. Cindy lives in West Palm Beach and rents a single family home. Unfortunately, a fire swept through the house, and all of Cindy's clothes and furniture, including her flat screen televisions, were destroyed. Most renters insurance policies cover theft and fire, so Mary and Cindy should be able to recoup some or all of their losses. Edward's situation will be a different story. Property loss due to flooding is not covered in most renters insurance policies, so it is important to understand that while renters insurance offers protection, it does not offer complete protection to the resident for losses. The renters insurance policy will dictate what is and what is not covered based on the cause of the damage or loss. The policy will list which perils will be covered. Many renters insurance policies cover fire, lightning, explosions, vandalism, theft, and overflow of water from plumbing or air conditioning systems. Items typically not covered are sewer back ups, flooding, power failures, negligent or intentional acts. The key is to read what the policy says! Sadly, many residents buy into the fallacy that the landlord is responsible in those instances, and that they will be covered by the landlord's insurance policies, when then is often not true.

Cash Value vs. Replacement Value,

Elron was surfing the internet during what had been a very nice day. Out of nowhere a bolt of lighting flashed through the sky. The lighting bolt struck Elron's unit, which in turn caused his computer to be fried. Elron previously purchased renters insurance. Assuming that losses from lightning are covered under the policy, how much money will Elron receive from the insurance carrier? If the policy allows for him to receive actual cash value, then Elron will be reimbursed the depreciated value of the computer. If the computer is very old, then the reimbursement may be minimal. For slightly more money, Elron would have been better served having replacement cost coverage, because it is going to cost him more to replace the computer than what the old computer's actual value is.

How does renters insurance protect the resident from personal liability and loss of use?

Tim, a resident at the XYZ Apartment Homes, had a very bad day! Tim invited Abby to watch some football playoff games, but an accidental fire started when Tim's dog, Klumso, knocked a lit candle onto the carpet and newspapers. Tim was filling the bath in anticipation of washing Klumso when the fire started, and in the confusion of the moment, forgot to shut off the water, which then overflowed through the apartment and flooded his neighbor's unit as well. Abby was injured trying to put the fire out, and Tim was forced to stay in a motel for ten days. If Tim had elected to pay for loss of use coverage in conjunction with his renters insurance policy, then he would be reimbursed for additional living expenses incurred, because he could not use his apartment home. Even more importantly, had Tim also selected personal liability coverage with appropriate coverage limits as part of his renters insurance policy, then he would be able to use those proceeds from the policy for potential liability to Abby, such as medical expenses. The resident can be held liable for injuries to guests. Additionally, residents that have accidents which cause damage to a neighbor's unit can also be held liable. Therefore renters insurance with personal liability coverage is a must.

Why should the landlord care?

Mildred leased a two bedroom apartment for $1300 a month. A fire started in her kitchen while she and a guest were inside the unit. The guest was injured trying to put the fire out. Mildred had not purchased a renters insurance policy covering her personal contents or for personal liability. Her landlord Mitch tells her it is not his problem, and she will pay the consequences for her failure to secure adequate insurance. Mitch could not be more wrong! Mildred will need to replace her personal contents that were damaged by the fire, such as her clothing, and may also be spending monies on legal bills if she is sued by her guest because of his injuries. How in the world is Mildred going to pay her rent? Renters insurance protects the income stream of the landlord. Guests injured in a rented unit can also sue the landlord. Soon Mildred's guest may be coming after Mitch with a personal injury lawsuit in hand. There is no doubt that it is in the best interest of the landlord to have residents obtain renters insurance with personal liability coverage.

Waiver of Subrogation

Not all renters insurance policies are the same. The landlord should require the insurance company to add a waiver of subrogation endorsement to the policy. Without the waiver of subrogation, the insurance company could file a legal action against a third party who causes the loss to the insurance company. Here is how this plays out in the renters insurance scenario. The resident obtains a renters insurance policy and agrees that any proceeds will be payable to the landlord. Suppose the resident causes an accident in the unit. Without the waiver of subrogation clause, the insurance company would pay the landlord and then go after the resident for reimbursement of the amount of the claim that was paid. Such a result could be devastating.

Requiring residents to obtain renters insurance

Landlords are not prohibited from requiring residents to obtain renters insurance as long as the requirements are reasonable in the eyes of the court. Telling residents they must obtain renters insurance is meaningless on its face. From reading this article you can see that renters insurance can include many different types of coverage. The first step that should be taken when rolling out a program requiring residents to obtain renters insurance is to obtain advice from your corporate attorney and/or risk management department and/or your insurance carrier, as the issues presented are quite complex. For instance, many property managers are more anxious for the resident to obtain personal liability insurance, as that is a huge potential risk for a landlord. There should be full disclosure to your residents as to the requirements, and it should be in writing in the lease or in a renters insurance addendum. The coverage limits should be reasonable, and the addendum should be easy for the resident to understand, so that they know the differences between liability coverage and personal contents coverage. The lease or addendum should also make it clear that residents may choose the insurance carrier of their own choice. Selling insurance requires a license. If the property manager is mandating which insurance company be used, then the landlord is essentially selling insurance and possibly engaging in antitrust activities, both of which are illegal! The lease or addendum should also spell out exactly the type of insurance that is not maintained by the landlord, so the resident understands the consequences of not obtaining renters insurance. Finally, the lease or addendum should require the resident to not only obtain the renters insurance policy, but to maintain it as well, and to provide proof of the insurance coverage to the landlord. The lease or addendum should also have a clause stating that any noncompliance by the resident with respect to those obligations listed in the lease or addendum would be considered a lease default.

A final caution to landlords that do require and confirm the resident has obtained renters insurance: a common fallacy held by landlords is that the landlord is not responsible for property loss if an item such as a pipe breaks inside a resident's unit, causing a flood. Most likely there were problems with the pipe or a pre-existing condition prior to the resident moving in, and if so, the resident would not be liable for the resulting property loss. Even if the resident had renters insurance, the landlord should not expect the renters insurance policy to cover the resulting losses, since the resident is not responsible for those losses. The renters insurance carrier may disclaim coverage, looking to the landlord's liability carrier for coverage, or if the damage claim is paid by the renters insurance carrier to the resident, the renters insurance carrier may then bring a subrogation claim against the landlord, as discussed above.

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Law Offices of Heist, Weisse & Wolk, P.A.
Phone: 1-800-253-8428 Fax: 1-800-367-9038

Serving Florida's Property Managers with main office in Fort Myers Beach. Available by appointment in Orlando and Clearwater

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